Thursday, March 09, 2006

The Experimenter's Patent


USPT Office 3,331,744 Patented July 18, 1967
3,331,744 PRODUCTION OF ISOTOPES FROM THERMO-NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS Theodore Brewster Taylor, La Jolla, Calif., assignor to 5 the United States of America as represented by the United States Atomic Energy Commission No Drawing. Filed Apr. 21, 1959, Ser. No. 807,959 5 Claims. (Cl176-10)
This invention relates to a method for producing isotopes from neutron 'bombardment in proximity to an atomic explosion. It is well-known that many useful isotopes not gen-erally available in nature can be produced by subjecting certain elements to neutron bombardment. In order to 15 produce the artificial isotope in a sufficient quantity to be useful, it is necessary that neutrons be available in large numbers. When a large flux of neutrons is desired, the cost per neutron can become a very important factor in deciding the best source of supply. A nuclear pile or reactor operating under controlled conditions is one type of neutron source having greater economy than, for example, a radium-beryllium source and a more practical source of neutron than a radioactive source. However, with a nuclear reactor the cost per neutron is sufficiently high that a more economical source is very desirable. By this invention, a method is provided for producing isotopes from bombardment of neutrons released in an atomic explosion. The cost per neutron is low and the method can be used for large-scale production of many isotopes. It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a method for producing isotopes from neutron bombardment. It is a further object of this invention to provide a method for utilizing the neutrons from an atomic explosion. Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for producing tritium, plutonium, uranium 233 or cobalt 60, by utilizing the neutrons from an atomic explosion. Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for producing isotopes from bombardment of neutrons emitted in a nuclear explosion in which the isotopes produced may bbe recovered. Further objects of the present invention will be apparent from the following specification and claims.

The general principle of the present invention is to employ an atomic explosion, preferably one which derives a considerable portion of its energy from a thermo-nuclear fuel, to provide neutrons which may be used to produce isotopes by transmutation although any isotope which may be produced .by neutron bombardment may be produced by the method of the present invention. The preferred embodiment is the production of the isotopes U233, PU239, H3 or CO60. Therefore, in the preferred embodiment, a suitable blanket for absorbing neutrons in thorium, uranium, lithium or cobalt, is placed on the ground, either as a large circular disk or as a lining of a partial spherical cavity on the ground. A thermonuclear bomb with a yield of the order of a megaton is then fired at such a distance above the ground that no appreciable cratering results and that only a very small thickness of blanket protecting material is vaporized. If desired the explosion is repeated until the desirable neutron capture product in the bblanket has built to such a concentration as wanted. If the blanket containing the material to be irradiated
is to be recovered and processed after one or more nuclear detonations above it, the explosion must take place at such a distance that: (1) The thermonuclear radiation from the ball of fire of the nuclear detonation can penetrate only a few millimeters into the blanket material. It is presumed that the thickness penetrated is also vaporized. (2) The blanket should be capable of withstanding the hydrodynamic shock from the explosion. Experiments were carried out during test detonations of atomic bombs which furnished data for the design of blanket protective coverings which survive the explosion. Although temperature as high as a quarater of a million degrees centigrade may exist at the surface of a thick piece of metal, this high temperature lasts for such a short period of time that only a few millimeters of material is vaporized. The 'balance of the metal piece is not badly damaged by the explosion. Thus, the requirement that the material to be irradiated be protected from 20 the heat of the atomic explosion can be easily met. With regard to survival of the hydrodynamic shock, data has been gained from atomic explosion tests which indicate relatively shallow craters from explosions in the ground. A steel or aluminum plate of the order of 1" 25 ,thick backed by hard ground or asphalt will not be seriously damaged 'by explosions a reasonable distance away, for example, a steel plate 1/2" thick will survive the thermal effects of a 1 megaton explosion detonated 100 meters above it. In order to increase the shock resistance of such a steel plate it is preferable ,to prepare a cavity with a spherical surface having its center at the explosion point and lining the cavity with the steel plate. This prevents a pressure gradient from existing along the surface in such a direction as would otherwise force the 35 plate outward from a point directly under the explosion point.

During an atomic explosion many neutrons are created 40 primarily from the fission and fusion processes. The en, ergy of the neutrons varies and a complete spectrum appears from 0 volts to about 15 mev. If the bomb is essentially a thermonuclear bomb with a very small amount of uranium present so that most of the neutrons 45 are from the fusion process, the probability of a neutron being captured in the bomb material can be kept small. Furthermore, if the thermonuclear fuel at maximum reaction time is several neutron transport mean free paths in radius, most of the neutrons will thermalize to a bomb 50 temperature of a few kilovolts before escaping into the air. As the bomb expands a few-fold it becomes considerably easier for the neutrons to escape into the air but by this time most of them are at the temperature of the bbomb material, e.g., 1 kilovolt. 55 The neutrons which escape diffuse ahead of the hydrodynamic shock front. The shock front moves at a velocity about equal to the thermal velocity of the material within the ball of fire of the bomb. Since the temperature of the material drops below 1 kilovolt rapidly 60 because of bomb expansion, the time required for hydrodynamic shock of a 1 megaton explosion to travel an initial 100 meters is about 1 millisecond, whereas the time required for a 1 kev. neutron to diffuse an initial 100 meters in air is less than half a millisecond. Thus, 65 if the blanket is 100 meters from a 1 megaton explosion most of the neutrons which are originally travelling in the direction of the blanket will reach it before the shock. The physical phenomena which takes place before the shock arrives are known and predictable. However, after 70 the shock arrives physical happenings are difficult to understand. It is known that some of the original neutrons

4 proximately true for carbon over the energy range considered. Thus,
;\=2.7 cm.
3 which impinge on the blanket aI'e reflected back into the air through which the shock is approaching. For a practical design, the horizontal blanket dimensions should be large compared to the transport mean free path of the neutrons in the air which is about 20 meters. Hence a neutron which has been reflected by the blanket will very likely reenter the blanket after rereflection by the air. A detailed description of air to blanket diffusion process is complicated by the change of state of the air as the fireball expands into it. Since most of the neutrons 10 react with the material of the blanket upon initially entering the blanket, those which reflect back into the air are small in number and contribute a secondary effect to the calculations which follow. An exception to this statement is possible when it is desired to produce plutonium in a uranium blanket because of the strong resonance capture in UZ38 in which case many of the neutrons which diffuse back from the air may be at the proper energy for reasonance capture and be more effective in producing plutonium than the early neutrons. The production of the isotopes of the preferred embodiment follow the same general scheme except that consideration must be given to the energy of the neutrons desired, the thickness of the blanket, etc. so that each blanket must be designed for the particular isotope desired. TRITIUM PRODUCTION
5 and
j=ln (1000/.025=66 0.16
(r2)1/2=(2X7.3X66)1/2=31 cm. If the Li6 concentration is such that there are several thermal capture mean free paths in the blanket, the capture probability for neutrons which are not reflected by the blanket will be very high. Since the Li6 thermal 15 capture cross section is about 900 barns, the mass of Li6 per unit area of the blanket to provide two capture mean free paths can be calculated from the following equation: M=NI*AP1 20 OMEGAcXNo where M=the mass of Li6 per unit area of the blanket so as to provide two capture mean free paths Nf=# M,F.P. 25 No=Avogadro's number PL=density of Li. That is
Assuming that the blanket protective coating of steel, aluminum or a ceramic material or a combination thereof has been selected, it is then necessary to select the most 30 desirable matrix for holding the capturing Li6 atoms. The area and volume of the blanket must be large enough to make efficient use of the bomb neutrons but small enough to contain a practical amount of Li6 atoms. A 20% solid angle 100 meters from an explosion is a practical area for producing tritium (or other) isotopes. The area of a 20% solid angle blanket is then 2.5 X 108 cm.2. In order to get as high a concentration of tritium per Li6 atoms as possible, it is desirable for the capture 40 process to take place at thermal neutron energies, where the cross section is highest. Therefore the bomb neutrons must be moderated. As the ratio of the thermal capture cross section of Li6 and hydrogen is about 3000, a dilute mixture of Li6 and a hydrogenous substance is satisfactory. However, a problem which is introduced when the capture probability in a blanket is high, is that the heating of the blanket by the 4,8 mev. released from the Li6 capture process becomes appreciable and must be considered for blanket survival. That is, Li6-l--n--*He4+ T3+4.8 mev. Since no convenient hydrogen compounds with very high melting points exist, carbon is the most desirable 55 moderator matrix material. The root mean square distance which a neutron will travel in the process of being slowed down from 1 kev. to 0.025 ev. in carbon is (r2)1/2= (2;\2j)1/2
2X6 - 02 / 2 9OOX-:6 - . gm. cm, Thus the composition of the blanket would correspond to Li6C1Z00 (the atomic ratio of Li6 is 1 to 1200 of C). The total amounts of Li6 and carbon required for the size blanket we are considering, then, are 5 and 10,000 tons, 35 respectively, There is no particular neutronic reason for not using normal lithium (,..,70 tons), in order to have present 5 tons of Li6. Because of the high temperatures developed in the blanket, however, there may be a reason for keeping the lithium concentration as low as possible 40 in order that the lithium may ,be held by the carbon lattice even if it is above its melting point. In order to determine the limitations of captured den- sity in the blanket ,due to the heat of the capture process assume that the energy is deposited uniformly throughout the blanket. It is safe to allow the temperature to rise to 30000 C., which is under the sublimation point of carbon. Since the average specific heat of carbon is about 0.5 cal./gm. and the mass per unit area in the blanket is 50 gm" the largest allowable energy per cm.2 50 of blanket is about 6.7 X 104 cal. It is shown above in Equation 1 that the energy released per capture in Li6 is 4,8 mev. The tolerable number of captures in the blanket is
EaXNe=Cn ErXEg
Ei 1 j=lnEfXe
where Ea=energy per sq. cm. allowed Er=energy released per reaction (2) Eg=ergs/electron volt energy 60 N e=number of ergs 1 calorie Cn=concentration of neutrons. Therefore, 6.75X104X4.187X107-3 67X1017 / 2 65 4,8XIO8X1.6X10-12 - . n, cm, This corresponds to about 7X 10-7 moles of tritium per cm.2 of blanket per irradiation. This also corresponds to about 2X10-7 moles of tritium per mole of carbon or 70 about 2 X 10-4 moles of tritium per Li6. If a 1 megaton bomb is exploded 100 meters from the blanket and one half of the neutrons within the 20% solid angle are captures, the above concentration will occur. This concentration will produce about 500 gm. of tritium per irradiation distributed uniformly throughout the Li. It is probably
where ;\=the total mean free path, and j=the number of collisions for thermalization. For carbon,
where Ei=initial energy of neutron Ef=final energy of neutron e=average logarithmic energy loss per collision. It is assumed that ;\ is independent of energy and equal to the transport mean free path both of which are ap

30XX 72XI04XO.8 30 where 30XX=t.otal slowing down length on carbon, and . 80 ~XO.8=8.9XI0-4 If 20 percent of the neutrons are slowed to thermal 35 energies, the number of fissions produced will still cause considerable heating. In order to prevent this, a small amount of cadmium can be placed in the matrix. The cadmium resonance cross section, at about. 0.2 volt, is . . . about 7000 barns, and the thermal cross section is close Au=The effectIve resonance absorptIon mtegral for ura- 40t 3000 b Th .f th d. t t. . . 0 arns. us, I e ca mlum concen ra Ion m mum, the lattice is, for example, five times the concentration of U235 atoms, less than (600/5X3000)x.2, or less than one percent of the neutrons will cause a fission. The removal of neutrons from the U238 resonance capture 45 region, however, will amount to les~ than one percent. Also, uranium which has been depleted in its U235 con- tent can be used. Following the same calculation used for the tritium production blanket, it is reasonable that the thickness of 50 carbon be equal to the root mean square distance cov- ered by a neutron as it is slowed from 1 kev. to the minimum resonance energy of 5 ev. For this case

5 ble that the tritium exists in the blanket as atomic hydro- gen and there may be some advantage to using a high melting point salt of another monovalent. element like potassium, as a carrier for the lithium. This may in- crease the efficiency of holding the tritium. PLUTONIUM PRODUCnON
Plutonium can be produced by neutron capture in U238 similar to that which occurs in nuclear reactors. 1\t t~ermal neutron energies the .U238 capture .cro~s 10 sectIon IS 2.8 barns and the U235 fissIon cross sectIon IS 600 barns. Hence, in normal uranium, the ratio of cap- tures in U238 to fissions in U235 at thermal energies will be about R=c./f. X ratio of U238/U235 atoms R=2.8/600X.143=0.66 Since the energy released per fission is about thirty times as great as per capture, the blanket heating due to fission would be close to fifty times that due to capture. This clearly indicates that even in somewhat depleted uranium the majority of the captures cannot take place at thermal energies, but must take place at considerably higher ener- gies, where the competition 'between fission and capture is small. The resonance capture region in U238 is between 5 volts and 100 volts, so that it is desirable to arrange a system so that essentially all of the captures take place in the resonallce region. The normal uranium concentra- tion required in an infinite graphite matrix for a large probability of capture in the resonance region can be determined from the following. The resonance capture probability in the mixture is:
Au- X=E-;;Sc
rEo Au= JE (u.)ef!dEjE and
() occur per capture in the processes of slowing down to the lowest resonance region the following estimate can be made. The average fission cross section in U235 between 5 volts alld 1 kilovolt is about 40 barns, within ,a factor of two. Since the number of collisions required to de- grade the neutron energy from 1 kilovolt to 5 volts is about 30, the total path length for slowing down is 30XAcarbow or about 80 cm. (where A,,=2.65 cm.) so the mean free path per fission in a mixture of 200 atoms of carbon per atom of uranium (UC2oo) is Af in UC2oo=NcXA/ufXBXCU235/U238
where Ar=mean free path for fission in matrix 15 N,,=number of carbon atoms per atom of uranium A=atomic weight of carbon ui=average fission cross section p,,=density of carbon N,,=Avogadro's number 20 U235/U238=ratio of U235 atom to U238 atoms in normal uranium. Therefore, 200X12140Xl.8X.6X.OO7=7.2Xl04 cm.
25 Thus, the number of fissions in U235 per capture in U238 will be:
(Ua)eff=Effective absorption cross section for uranium E=The initial energy of the neutron E,,=Final energy of the neutron .=A verage logarithmic energy loss per collision in carbon us=Carbon scattering cross section C=The ratio of carbon to uranium atoms in the mixture. Us is constant and equal to 4.7 barns over the energy range of interest, . is 0.16 for carbon. Practically all of the (r2)'h=(2X7.3X33)Y'=22 cm. contribution to Au arise~ from the 5 to !OO volt regi?n, 55 A Monte Carlo calculation based upon a selection of so th: value of Au obtamed for moderatIon from fissIon random numbers to represent neutron energies has been energIes to thermal. . . done in which the probabilities for reflection and trans- Because of very strong self-shleldmg of the resonances mission of 1 kev. neutrons before reaching 10 volts were . U238 A. f t. f th t t. fU238 III , u IS a unc Ion 0 e concen ra lon o. calculated for neutrons incident upon a 15 cm. thick slab in .the. matrix; it appr?aches the value 240 barns for m- 60 of graphite. The calculated transmission probability is concentratIons of U23.8. ~ecause. of Doppler 10 percent, while the reflection probability is 75 percent. br9adenmg of the resonances wIth mcreasmg tempera- Thus, since the resonance capture probability in an in- ture, Au is also a function of temperature. .If the tem- finite medium of UC2oo is 80 percent, the net effect in perature of the matrix is allowed to reach 25000 C., this case would be to capture only about 12 percent of the rough calculations indicate that the effective value of 65 incident neutrons due to the large number reflected from Au for C=200 is about 150 barns, so that, approximately the carbon. It is clear the 15 cm. thickness of graphite P,-1-C-2Oo/c is adequate as far as transmission is concerned, but the - 'reflection probability is too high. It should be noted, how- If C,=200, the value of P is about 0.65. ever, that once a neutron has entered the blanket, its Note that as C is increased, P decreases, but the final 70 mean life for capture if not reflected is of the order of concentration of capture product in uranium increases. 10~6 seconds, whereas the mean life for capture in nitro- The choice of C is guided by the relative importance gen in the air at lIormal density is of the order of one- given to large total capture probability as opposed to tenth of a second. In addition, the average capture proba- large concentration. bility per collision of a 100 volt neutron in the blanket For an estimate of the number of fissions which will 75 is about ..06; whereas this number is about .003 for a
7 100 volt neutron in air. Thus, since the blanket's hori- zontal dimensions correspond to several scattering mean free paths in air, some of the neutrons which are diffus- ing in the air in the vicinity of the blanket at degraded energies closer to the resonance energy. Furthermore, if 5 the bomb to blanket distance is about 100 meters, a large fraction of the neutrons will have been slowed down by the air, and their mean energy will be only slightly above 100 volts. Since the mean neutron energy at the blanket is a rather sensitive function of distance 10 from the bomb, it is 'possible to pick a distance such that the majority of the neutrons arrive at energies close to the upper energy of the resonance capture energy region. It is to be expected that the fraction of the total number of neutrons emitted by the bomb which are captured in the blanket approaches the fractional solid angle sub- tended by the blanket. If, then, the breeding blanket consists of 15 cm. of carbon containing one atom in 200 of uranium and about one in 6000 of cadmium, the heat developed through capture product concentration can be calculated. The energy released per capture is about 6 mev. Of this energy, roughly one half will be deposited in the carbon, since the mean free path for first Compton collisions of the emitted 1 mev. gamma rays is about the thickness of the blanket. About 1500 calories per gm. can be deposited in the blanket. If the captures take place uniformly throughout the blanket, the total amount of energy liber- ated per cm.2 which will be tolerable is about 7 Xl 04 calories. This is the same number arrived at for the tritium 30 producing blanket, which had twice the thickness, but all the reaction energy deposited in the blanket. By a calculation similar for tritium production, it can be shown that this corresponds to about 1.7 X 10-4 gm. of plutonium per cm.2 for the maximum tolerable amount to be formed per irradiation. Note that this, in turn, corresponds to about 70 gm. of PU239 per ton of uranium and about one-tenth that concentration in carbon in the final prod- uct after one i:ra~iati?n. Here ag~in there is. a distin~t 40 advantage to dlstnbutmg the uramum non-umformly m the blanket-higher concentrations near the bottom- in order to insure uniform heating. The problem of high temperature on the behavior of the low concentration uranium in the carbon matrix at temperatures approaching 30000 C. is much less serious 45 than in the case of the tritium producing blanket. The uranium can be in the form of uranium dioxide, which has a melting point of over 22000 C. Because of the relatively long mean free path for energy deposition by the capture gamma rays, the uranium could be placed in 50 the blanket in the form of 1 millimeter thick layers of U02 spaced every 2 cm. or so through the blanket. In pile or neutronic reactor PU240 is produced subse- quent to PU239 from the neutron bombardment of PU239. 55 If PU239 is to be made efficiently, an. appreciable amount of PU240 will be produced because of the long irradiation period of the uranium slugs in an efficient cycle. The pro- duction of PU240 is undesirable as it is an isotope that has a high spontaneous fission activity. Therefore, a system which has essentially zero PU240 production with simul- taneous production of PU239 is advantageous. The PU240 content in the blanket, even if the irradiations are repeated at long enough intervals so that the Np239 has decayed between them, should be extremely low. The total resonance absorption integral for PU239 is 520 barns, and a large contribution to this comes from energies belo,v one volt, where capture in the cadmium will be an order of magnitude more probable than capture in the PU239. Within the U238 resonance capture range, an 70 upper limit to the ratio of PU240 to U239 production rates will be of the order of the ratio of existing con.centrations of PU239 to U238. Even when the PU239 concentration has reached 1000 gm. per ton of U238, the ratio will be of the order 9f 10-3, The resonance capture cross sections

8 of U239 and Np239 are not known, but they can hardly be an. order of magnitude higher than in U238 in the U238 resonance capture region. U233 PRODUCTION
U233 can be produced by capture of neutrons in Th232 in the reaction
Th232+n~Th223+B~ Pa233+B~ U233 The resonance absorption integral of Th232 is about 80 barns, or roughly one third of that of U238, and the largest resonances occur at about the same energies, i.e., between 10 and 100 ev. Hence, the breeding blanket should be chosen on the same basis as the PU239 produc- 15 tion blanket, but with a concentration corresponding to about ThC75' It should be noted, however, that since there is no fission in Th233 at the neutrOn energies we are con- sidering, there is no reason to attempt to prevent thermal capture. The thermal capture cross section in Th232 is 20 only 7.0 barns, so the concentration of thorium in the blanket which will provide a thermal mean free path for capture across the blanket is very much higher than that required for a high probability of capture in the resonance region. Hence, it seems reasonable to choose a blanket 25 which consists of 15 cm. of carbon containing an atomic concentration of thorium of about 1/75. Considerations of heating similar to those in the preced- ing section lead to maximum concentrations of Th233 per irradiation of about 25 gm. of U233 per ton of thorium. It should be pointed out that, since the neutrons in- cident on the blanket are well below the n-2n thresh- old for Pa233, the U232 content of the final product, even after many irradiations, will be negligible. On the other hand, the gamma activity of the Pa233 formed will be 35 exceedingly large for several half-lives of Pa233 (27 days), and will produce a formidable radiation hazard in the vicinity of the blanket after it has been irradiated. Thus the blanket should be allowed to "cool" for awhile before processing. The thorium should exist in the blanket as Th02, which has a melting point greater than 28000 C. It appears that the capture heating limitations on the U233 production scheme are less severe than tritium or plutonium produc- tion.
C060 PRODUCTION The scheme follows that for tritium production very closely, except that the concentration of the parent C059 must be about 20 times that of Li6 in the blanket or must correspond to about C059Cso. Thus the total amount of C059 in the blanket for production should be roughly 800 tons. The resulting amount of C060 per irradiation, for the use we have been considering, is then about 20 kilograms.
As has been shown in the foregoing, the blanket con- sists of a matrix comprising the material to be irradiated held in a suitable moderating structure plus a structural cover. The structural cover is preferably about a 1/2" 60 thickness of steel placed in contact with the graphite moderator. The steel can be protected with a ceramic coating such as a procelain coating well known in the art or a coating of a substance such as magnesium oxide. An- other ceramic coating which would be quite satisfactory 65 is concrete to a depth of about 1" or 2" which would be quite economical to use. The ceramic coating however should not be thick enough to have appreciable neutron capture take place in it. THE NEUTRON SOURCE
The neutron source selected can be a fission bomb, however, it is preferable to use a thermonuclear device with its corresponding large supply of neutrons. The bomb should preferably have a minimum amount of 75 uranium as to produce fewer fission productions and to
9 have more free neutrons available for the irradiation proc- ess. The bomb can be placed over the blanket suspended by a suitable tower and could be suspended over the blanket from a balloon, ground fired via a missile, or dropped from an aircraft. OTHER EMBODIMENTS
It is understood by the scope of this invention that other isotopes can be produced by neutron induced re- actions. The preferred embodiments have been given as 10 important examples and the calculations given show how other matrices can be designed. Therefore, the present invention is not limited in scope by the foregoing specifi- cation but only by the appended claims. What is claimed is: 15 1. A method for producing isotopes by neutron bom- bardment comprising dispersing an element selected from the class consisting of 6Li,. 238U, 232Th, and 59CO, said elements being contained within a carbon blanket such that the ratio of lithium to carbon is 1: 1200, uranium 20 to carbon is 1:200, thorium to carbon is 1:75, and cobalt to carbon is 1: 60, said blanket having an area of ap- proximately 2.5X 108 cm.2 and a thickness being in the range of 15-31 cms., protecting said blanket with a struc- tural cover of about one inch thickness and selected from 25 the class consisting of steel, concrete, and aluminum, plac- ing said covered blanket on a solid foundation at a dis- tance of approximately 100 meters from a nuclear bomb of about 1 megaton yield, exploding said nuclear bomb, and recovering the produced isotope from the irradiated 30 blanket. 2. A method for producing tritium using the process of claim 1 wherein the said carbon blanket contains 1 lithium to 1200 carbon atoms and said thickness of the blanket is approximately 31 cms. 3. A method for producing plutonium using the proc-
10 ess of claim 1 wherein the said carbon blanket contains 238U in the ratio of 1 uranium to 200' carbon atoms and said blanket having a thickness of about 22 cms. 4. A method for producing 233U using the method of 5 claim 1 wherein the said carbon blanket contains 232Th in the ratio of 1 thorium to 75 carbon atoms, said blanket having a thickness of about 15 cms. 5. A method for producing 60CO using the method of claim 1 wherein the said carbon blanket contains 59CO in the ratio of 1 cobalt to 60 carbon atoms, and said blanket having a thickness of about 31 cms. References Cited
UNITED STATES PATENTS 11/1957 Daniels ---------- 204-193.2 FOREIGN PATENTS 922,877 2/1947 France. 1,174,700 11/1958 France. OTHER REFERENCES Plowshare Series, URCL-5253, University of Cali- fornia Radiation Laboratory, Sept. 8, 1958, pages 4, 5, 10, 79-81. Power Generation, April 1949, pages 74, 75, 76, 126, 127, 128, 129. Proceedings of the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, vol. 8, page 305, 1958. "The Effects of Atomic Weapons," Los Alamos Scien- tific Laboratory 1950, page 12, Sept. 1, 1947. REUBEN EPSTEIN, Primary Examiner. ROGER L. CAMPBELL, Examiner. 35 R. L. GOLDBERG, Assistant Examiner.